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Whenever I am at a gym, martial arts school or fitness centre, I see guys (yes, mostly males) gulping down sports drinks like Gatorade, Powerade, or something made from a powder. I have often asked myself, “Is that drink necessary in this situation?” To answer this, I usually observe the individual’s activity, and more often than not answer my own question with a resounding NO. Although, I want to be clear that there is a lot of general confusion about sports drinks and hydration. I hope to clear-up some of the misinformation, and help you understand how to drink effectively, and what to drink when you need hydration.

Sports drinks: The marketable product

What is a Sports Drink? For the purpose of this article, any drink containing electrolytes (sodium and potassium) and carbohydrates are considered sports drinks. Most commercial sports drinks contain both, but sometimes the electrolytes are missing. Typically, a before- and during-exercise sports drink should contain 6-8% solutes. For example, a 500mL drink would have 30-40g of carbohydrates plus electrolytes. A post-exercise recovery sports drink would likely have a higher carbohydrate load.

sportsdrinks2.jpg

Let’s be honest. We all know that nutritional supplements and ergogenic aids (performance enhancing supplements) are big business. They are huge in competitive and elite sporting circles, as they genuinely can give an edge to a competitor, and also because when the public see their favourite athletes slurping on a cold sports brew at half-time, this is good for sales. The companies that make them know that the real money is in marketing these products to the general population. So, companies have a vested interest in seeing sports drinks sold to Joe and Josephine Public in order to increase profit. 

So then, do you or don’t you need sports drinks?

The importance of being… hydrated

Water plays a number of important roles in your body. Since 60% of your total body weight is made up by water, suffice to say, if you run out of water you die. After losing only 1-2% of body water, your heart will have to work harder and your aerobic endurance decreases. Of course, continued fluid loss ensures further consequences. When exercising, body water loss most likely occurs from sweating, particularly in hot climates. The highest recorded sweat rate was 3.7 litres per hour, by Alberto Salazar when preparing for the 1984 Summer Olympic Games! Replacing fluids when exercising is very important.

Rule of thumb: the more you sweat, the more you should drink. It is a great idea to start drinking before you begin your exercise. During really intense exercise or sweaty, long duration training, a consumption rate of approximately 250mL every 15 minutes should be sufficient. For lower intensity or shorter exercise periods, periodically sipping water is fine. Remember, do not to wait until you are thirsty! Once you feel thirsty, you are already 1-2% dehydrated. Continue drinking once you have finished exercising to ensure adequate recovery.

What do drink?

 

Have you ever experienced muscle cramps during or after exercise? This is likely due to  a loss of electrolytes from your body through sweat. If you are anything like me, you will have noticed that sweat tastes salty. This is because it has a high concentration of sodium. Electrolytes are essential for effective muscle contractions, so when you are losing them quickly through sweating, you will need to replace them reasonably quickly. The fastest way? A sports drink. Longer duration vigorous exercise, high intensity exercise, and exercise in hot climates are three contexts in which using a sports drink does make sense. Sports drinks can also be good during activities that require high intensity physical work.

Where sports drinks truly come into their own is competition events. If you are competing in a long duration (45+ minutes) event, or have multiple events on the same day, then sports drinks can be vital to maintaining high performance. This is even more essential in hot climates.

sportsdrinks1

“I made some blue meth. It’s Gatorade.” -Kelly, Neighbors (2014)

If you are trying to decide whether you should drink water or a sports drink, ensure that you consider these 3 things:

  • the ambient temperature of the climate in which you are exercising
  • the intensity of exercise
  • the duration of exercise

If you are going to be exercising for less than 45 minutes, then water alone is probably sufficient. Should that 45 minutes be high intensity, high sweat yielding exercise, it will be important to replenish both electrolytes and macronutrients soon after exercising. A sports drink during and/or after the session might also be worthwhile to decrease your recovery time.

Regardless of whether you choose water or sports drinks, the most important part is to stay hydrated. Water is good for all occasions. Sports drinks are more useful for intense, long-duration, or sweaty activities. Remember, don’t wait till you’re thirsty. Drink up!

My Wife, Krav Maga, and I: A Love-Hate Relationship

Posted: November 1, 2016 by Forge Fitness + Martial Arts in Uncategorized

A few weeks ago, we published an article from BJJ instructor Donna Marion about the perks of having a partner who trains in the same sport. Krav Maga instructor Josh Hensman decided to share his experience from the perspective of his wife, who does not train, on how Krav Maga impacts their relationship.

JoshAt the time that I first met my partner over 6 years ago, I was not training in any martial arts. Many years before meeting her, I had done karate, had dabbled in Wing Chun Kung Fu, and played with Capoiera. I decided to start training in Krav Maga relatively early in our relationship, so maybe she did not feel like she had much say or impact on what I did in my life at the time.

In hindsight, that was probably lucky. My wife admits to having a love-hate relationship with me… the Krav Maga practitioner me. She loves to see me doing something I enjoy immensely, but she hates to see me come home with bruises, scrapes, strains and sprains. So what does my wife think of her husband training in this intrinsically pragmatic self-defense system? 

My wife’s perspective of Krav Maga

Me: What were your first impressions when you found out I was learning KM?

Her:  There were definitely mixed feelings of excitement and sadness. Excited that you found something you were so interested in partaking and sad that it meant you were going to be even busier than you already were. Keep in mind, at the time I didn’t know what Krav Maga was aside from a style of self defense.

Me: What did you think when I started coming home injured?

Her: I was concerned. It shocked me how bruised you would be sometimes after KM, but more concerned that you didn’t seem bothered by it. I was quite upset at you a couple of times. You had some injuries that were more serious: muscle and ligament injuries, and head and neck injuries. I mean, some of these could impact you for the rest of your life!

Me: What did you think of KM when you tried it?

Her: I thought KM was super cool. I didn’t feel too out of place in class and I learned a couple of self-defense techniques I hadn’t known before. We practiced over and over again the head butt, eye gouge, ear clap and running away. Oh! And let’s not forget the painful 360 block – bruises all along my arms. I definitely felt a tad more confident walking out the doors.

Me: Has your perspective changed as time has gone by? How?

Her: I still think KM is a super cool and useful! I’d say it over and over again – KM is a very unique style of self defense as it’s effective and suitable for anyone to learn.  I personally went back to KM couple more times hoping to continue learning different techniques, but found myself learning the same techniques and that demotivated me to continue.  I do understand that practice makes perfect – I just don’t have the patience for it.  

Me: Does having a husband who knows KM make you feel safer?

Her: I hate to admit it, but yes.  That doesn’t mean I’ve felt unsafe before you started KM, I just feel more safe seeing the techniques KM teaches and watching you practice at home. It also makes me feel safe knowing you are personally safe wherever you are.  

She loves Krav Maga because…happy-wife-happy-life

She loves me. Being such a loving and considerate person, my wife loves to see me happy. She knows that training in Krav Maga makes me happy.

But she hates Krav Maga because…

She loves me. (Editor’s note: Awww!) Since my wife cares for me so tremendously, she intensely hates seeing me get hurt. For example, when I recently did my Green Belt Test, she couldn’t bring herself to come and watch. But, she did look after me in the aftermath!

Where to draw the risk-reward line in Krav Maga?


As one of the lead KM instructors at UTKM says, “Happy Wife, Happy Life.”
I tiptoe the line and try to practice sensibly to avoid major injury. However, if I sustain a major injury, I will always choose to put my wife and family first. This may mean indefinitely hitting pause on higher level Krav Maga training, particularly the high intensity and high risk components. But hey, that means instead of practicing, I can spend more time teaching Krav Maga. There is always a silver lining!

 

 

 

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At UTKM’s Tactical Shotgun Course, I’m the one in green.

Until I started doing Krav Maga, I never imagined I would buy and have my own firearms. I mean, I live in the city. I can’t really use it for self-defense as it is not stored at my house. I don’t hunt. I rarely go hiking deep enough in the wilderness to carry a gun for protection against animals, such as bears. Let’s not forget the legality issues of owning firearms in Canada.

Before joining Urban Tactics Krav Maga, I have had a small amount of shooting experience with various firearms. I have shot rifles at my friends’ and family’s farms, handguns at a range on a couple of occasions, and even an under and over shotgun. Through UTKM, I have gained my CFSC and undertook Level 1, 2, and 3 of their Tactical Shotgun Courses. Then, I surprised myself by considering to purchase my first firearm. What am I going to do with a gun?

Two reasons why I chose the shotgun

superb-high-definition-desktop-wallpapers-of-shotgun#1 Simplicity. Doesn’t everyone like simplicity? As far as I can tell, the shotgun is the simplest firearm, and that’s right down my alley. How simple, you ask? Well, mechanically it is pretty basic, and therefore less likely to jam or break. It is also simple to shoot: you point the dangerous end towards what you want to hit and squeeze the trigger. Pump the action, and repeat. Simple, right? I know, I know. I am ignoring plenty of important elements here, but you see what I am saying.

#2 It suits me. Shotguns fit my personality. Handguns are sexy, close-range weapons. Not my style. Rifles are high precision shooting machines. Me and precision? Not even close acquaintances. Shotguns are… simple. Just like a basic digital camera. You point and shoot.

Wait a second… Isn’t reason two basically the same as reason one? Yup. So… I bought a shotgun.

Tips for first time firearm buyers

First things first. Try out the gun you want, or something very similar, first before you make a decision. It sounds like common sense, but guess what? Common sense is not so common. If you want to buy a gun for the first time, like a sleek and sexy Glock 17, don’t go and shoot with a side-by-side shotgun. They are worlds apart! Some shooting ranges have firearms that you can “rent,” even if you don’t have your CFSC. Take my advice, go find the gun you like and give it a shot.

Second things second. Start with a non-restricted firearm, before stepping up to a restricted one. Say you want to buy a handgun. You have your CRFSC and your cash. Ready? Not quite. You need a permit to transport, which you will definitely be asked to present when you try to get that restricted firearm. Do you want to get flagged by the RCMP? Go right ahead and buy a restricted firearm first time around. If not, purchase a non-restricted firearm first and learn to use that, and then move on to the restricted firearms.

So why do I need a gun?

Josh HensmanI don’t. BUT, I feel much more comfortable knowing how a shotgun operates, and being able to continually get more familiar with a shotgun. My shotgun! I know how to ensure the safety is engaged and how to eject the rounds. I am happier knowing that if I ever end up in a situation in which I have to disarm someone with a shotgun, I will be confident. Thus, my answer is I don’t need a firearm. I want one. And now, I have one.

 

Sports Drinks – Do You Need Them When Exercising?

Posted: March 19, 2016 by Forge Fitness + Martial Arts in Uncategorized
Tags: , , , , ,

gatorade

So do you? Well, it depends…

Whenever I am at a gym, martial arts school or fitness centre I see guys (yes, mostly males) gulping down sports drinks such as Gatorade, Powerade, or something made from a powder. I often ask myself, is that drink necessary in this situation? To answer this I usually observe the individual’s activity, and more often than not, I answer my own question with a resounding ‘no’. I want to be clear though, there is a lot of confusion about sports drinks and hydration in general. Hopefully this brief article will clear-up some of the misinformation to help you understand how to drink effectively, and what to drink when you do.

Sports Drinks as a Marketable Product

Let’s be honest. We all know that nutritional supplements and ergogenic aids (performance enhancing supplements) are big business. They are huge in competitive and elite sporting circles, as they genuinely can give an edge to a competitor, and also because when the public see their favourite athletes slurping on a cold sports brew at half-time, this is good for sales. The companies that make them know that the real money is in marketing these products to the general population. So, companies have a vested interest in seeing sports drinks sold to Joe and Josephine Public in order to increase profit. Does that mean sports drinks don’t work or are unnecessary? Read on…

Powerade-1_860

What is a Sports Drink

For the purpose of this article a sports drink will be considered to contain electrolytes (sodium and potassium) and carbohydrates. Most commercial sports drinks contain both, but sometimes the electrolytes are missing. Typically a before and during exercise sports drink should contain 6-8% solutes, so a 500mL drink would 30-40 g of carbohydrate plus electrolytes. A post-exercise recovery sports drink would likely have a higher carbohydrate load.

The Importance of Being… Hydrated

Water has a number of important roles in your body. With 60% of your total bodyweight made up by water, suffice to say, if you run out of water you die. With only 1-2% of body water loss your heart has to work harder and your aerobic endurance decreases. Continued fluid loss ensures further consequences. When exercising, fluid loss is most likely from sweating, particularly in hot climates. The highest recorded sweat rate was 3.7 litres per hour, by Alberto Salazar when preparing for the 1984 Summer Olympic Games. Replacing fluid lost from sweating when exercising is very important. Rule of thumb, the more you sweat, the more you should drink.

When to Drink

It is a great idea to start drinking before you begin your exercise. During exercise a consumption rate of approximately 250mL every 15 minutes should be sufficient for really intense or long duration, sweaty training. For lower intensity or shorter exercise periods, periodically sipping water is fine. Remember not to wait until you are thirsty! Once you feel thirsty you are already 1-2% dehydrated. Continue drinking once you have finished exercising to ensure adequate recovery.

What to Drink

If you are going to be exercising for less than 45 minutes, then water alone is probably sufficient. Should that 45 minutes be high intensity, high sweat yielding exercise, it will be important to replenish both electrolytes and macronutrients soon after exercising, and a sports drink during/after the session might be worthwhile to decrease your recovery time.

Have you ever experienced muscle cramps during or after exercise? This is likely due to  a loss of electrolytes from your body through sweat. If you are anything like me, you will have noticed that sweat tastes salty. This is because it has a high concentration of sodium. Electrolytes are essential to effective muscle contractions, so when you are losing them quickly through sweating, you will need to replace them reasonably quickly. The fastest way – a sports drink. Longer duration vigorous exercise, high intensity exercise, and exercise in hot climates are three contexts in which using a sports drink does make sense.

Where sports drinks truly come into their own is competition events. If you are competing in a long duration (+45 minutes) event or have multiple events on the same day sports drinks can be vital to maintaining high performance. This is even more essential in hot climates or events that require high intensity physical work.

six-bottles-of-water

Please use re usable water battles when possible.

To Drink or Not to Drink?

Definitely drink! If you are trying to decide whether that drink should be water or a sports drink, ensure that you consider the ambient temperature of the climate you will be exercising in, the intensity of exercise, and the duration of exercise, before making your choice.

 

Kids Krav Maga Class UTKM

I am biased. I can’t pretend that I don’t think Krav Maga (KM) is a great system. For both adults and kids. Although, in reality, like with more traditional martial arts, there are substantive differences in the systems and how they are taught by each organisation. Therefore I lead with this: do your research, do a trial class, and find out if your kids enjoy it. This holds true for any activity or program you are considering for your child.

Over the last 3 years I have observed that KM is not yet a well-known system. Often when people do know of it, they have substantial misconceptions about its nature. The negative perceptions (of some) are partially due to how it is represented in popular media such as youtube, where schools or individuals demonstrate their techniques. In addition, KM’s strong links with Israel, perceived by some as a country with a checkered human rights record, also plays into these negative perceptions. So when considering KM and kids I find myself wondering:

Is KM too aggressive for children?
Does KM promote use of weapons?
Is KM appropriate for kids?

Aggression
KM is a very pragmatic martial system. One of the basic tenets of KM, if it could be said to have any, is to react quickly and conclusively. In order to be effective for practitioners who may be smaller and/or weaker than their attacker, techniques must be enacted with speed and a certain amount of aggression. When I think about an adult or older youth attacking a child, I find it very difficult to imagine a successful escape without the child using force and aggression. When facing an opponent who is physically larger and stronger than you, good technique is not always enough. To my thinking it is entirely acceptable for someone to defend themselves aggressively if they are concerned about their safety and can find no way to avoid or escape the situation.

We need to separate the concept of aggression from anger. Often aggression is associated with anger, which can trigger us into thinking, saying or doing things that hurt others or ourselves. So what is aggression? Key words that come to mind when I think of aggression are: violence, force, anger, fear, assertiveness.  Many of these words have negative connotations in ‘western’ societies such as Canada. I would argue, however, that such connotations should be contextual, and when they are out of context are viewed emotively rather than pragmatically in relation to the context. Another part of the problem with our understanding of aggression is that we usually associate it with an attacker rather than a defender. There are many documented occasions though, of a member of the public being attacked and responding with force  and aggression (shouting, screaming, struggling and striking), which allows them to escape the attacker. I firmly believe that aggression in response to a physical attack is warranted and could in fact play a pivotal role in whether an escape is successful.

As with many things context is key. So if we decide that aggression is acceptable in certain situations, how do we decide at what age a child can understand when it is and is not acceptable? This perhaps is the subject of a whole other article.

Weapons
In many online videos I see KM practitioners tearing weapons away from their training partner assailants and simulating combative techniques against the pretend attacker. Is this KM? Well yes, to some degree it is. Is this what we teach to children? Certainly not. A good KM school restricts instruction of techniques against weapons to more experienced students. A solid understanding of non-weapon techniques, using your body as a weapon, and when to use violence must all be achieved before a student is capable of dealing with armed opponents. That being said, once someone moves from child to adult classes and is sufficiently experienced, they will definitely learn to counter and defend against attackers wielding a variety of weapons. In all likelihood, they may even learn to use weapons. Someone who knows how a particular weapon works is significantly advantaged if they are attacked and are able to disarm their assailant. They may also be more successful in their defense as they will understand first-hand how an attacker with a specific weapon moves and is limited by the weapon.

Finally, an intelligent defender is always ready to apply the principle of tool over fist. The reason humans first began making and using tools was to overcome the restrictions of their own bodies. To be able to DO more. If I am attacked and have time, I would much rather pick up a chair/lamp/stick and use it to defend myself against the attacker coming at me with a knife, than going bare-handed and allowing the attacker close enough to cut me. Call me old-fashioned, but I don’t like blood staining my clothes. Particularly my own blood. So in the KM version of ‘stone-paper-scissors’, now known as ‘tool-hand’, tool always beats hand. If I am being too oblique just remember: don’t use your hands to defend yourself if you have a tool available!

Appropriate for Kids?
In my opinion children who are 8 years or older could be ready to learn KM. This very much depends on the individual child however, particularly in relation to their ability to reason and make good decisions. Remember, many KM specific techniques are designed to be used as a counter when someone else attacks you. If your child is not attacked then they won’t need to use their KM techniques. I am sure some of you are thinking “so what about when another kid at school bullies a young KM student and the student lashes out with a dangerous KM technique?” A good question, but one that I will deal with in Part 2 of this article. The other important factor is the culture of the KM school and the importance placed upon situational responsiveness.

When you witness what is taught at a kids krav maga class, ask yourself this:
Do the children learn about when to use their KM skills?
Are de-escalation and/or avoidance techniques taught as well as more combative skills?
Does KM teach your child techniques that could potentially save their lives?

Violence and aggression are not the only solutions in many situations. They are, however, a necessary solution in some situations. Teaching kids (or adults for that matter) how to recognize when violence is the best, or only solution to a problem, or alternatively, when to run away or talk it out, is a core part of KM training for civilian life. In life we are continually faced with choices. The impact of our subsequent decisions can remain with us for the rest of our lives. We would all of course prefer not to need to consider the need for any kind of self-defence. Unfortunately the fact that people do get attacked is a reality of human life and always has been. Ultimately KM is one of a number of options available which says, ‘Better safe than sorry.’

REMEMBER: not all KM schools are created equal. Parents, do your research. Observe a class, speak to the instructor, let your child try a class and then make an informed decision.

Josh Training

While I highly advocate using training aids, I have designed a workout that is accessible for people who do not have their own equipment or belong to a facility with such equipment. Therefore this workout simply utilizes body weight and the amazing natural force of gravity! The goals of this workout are to:

>increase muscular endurance for the whole body – enabling you to move your own body with more ease and efficacy

>improve the body’s performance at high intensity workloads (metabolic conditioning) – enabling you to function effectively for longer at high intensities

>improve power edurance – enabling you to perform more explosive movements before critical fatigue hits

When you take a look below you may recognize the format of the workout – that’s right, it is a circuit. Why a circuit you may ask? Three reasons: it provides a structure with variety to keep things interesting; moving through a sequence of exercises that work different parts of the body means you don’t have to rest as much but can stay in the anaerobic/subanaerobic heart rate zone; and finally, it keeps the workout relatively short. There is nothing revolutionary here, just a great workout that will get you on the path toward being fit for Krav Maga.

*Please remember, if you have not worked out for a while or have medical complications, this workout may not be for you. If you partake in this workout and start to experience nausea, light-headedness, tightness in the chest or any other symptoms of concern, please stop exercising. If the symptoms persist please seek medical advice.

The Warm-up:

5-10 minutes of light calisthenic or cardiovascular exercise (jogging, jumping jacks, skipping etc) that gradually increases in intensity so that you are breathing somewhat heavily and are experiencing a slight sweat at the end of your warm-up.

The Workout:

Do the workout provided below (see ‘What do do’) 2-3 times each week for four weeks using the following guidelines. You are not counting the number of times you do each exercise, but focusing on the amount of time spent doing it:

Week 1 – 30 seconds of work:30 seconds rest per exercise.
Week 2 – 40 seconds of work:20 seconds rest per exercise.
Week 3 – 50 seconds of work:10 seconds rest per exercise.
Week 4 – 60 seconds or work: no rest per exercise.

If you cannot complete the specified time for an exercise, spend the remaining time resting until the next exercise starts. In week 4 you can take 60 seconds rest between each cycle of the circuit.

What To Do:

Do ‘Circuit 1’ three times (60 seconds per exercise each time). Follow immediately with three sets of ‘Circuit 2’ (60 seconds per exercise).

What You Need:

Water bottle
Sweat towel
A timer – stopwatch, watch, smart phone, tablet etc

Circuit 1

Burpees
Mountain climber
Jump squats
Fast jab-cross in the air (use a bag if you have one)

Circuit 2

Surfer pop
Rope climber
Spiderman crawl push-up
Shuttle sprint (10 metres back and forth)

Do this workout 2-3 times/week with 48 hours between each workout. For demonstrations of the exercises above, please see the video clip provided: Krav Maga Basic Conditioning Solo

Practice and improve!

As a  strength and conditioning coach, students in our school often ask me what they can do to be more fit for Krav Maga (KM). My first thought when anyone asks me what they can do to be fitter, is why? Or more precisely, what is it you are going to be doing that makes you want or need to be fitter? In the world of fitness training, context is king. “I need to be fitter because I have young kids and I can’t keep up with them anymore”; “I want to be fitter so I can train more effectively in my sport”; “I am having trouble lifting and carrying my groceries these days, so I want to get stronger”. The reason, situation or context here is vital and plays a large part in guiding the components of your subsequent training program.

pushup

To come back to martial arts, conditioning performed for one martial art is often  very different to that done for another, based on the physical demands of the discipline. For example, having trained for high level sport karate competitions I know that developing speed and explosive power is essential, whereas overall strength and explosive power are higher priorities for wrestling. As many of you probably know, unlike most martial ‘arts’, KM  is not a competitive or artistic discipline. In fact, it is more accurately a martial system than an art. So to decide what type of conditioning is best suited to improving the fitness of KM practitioners, I need to know what demands will be placed on their bodies when using KM.

When KM practitioners have to use their skills it will either be in a school training situation or real life. Unlike other martial arts which involve competitions there is no specific time frame for which a KM practitioner needs to prepare. No five-minute round that is finished with the ringing of a bell. If you are attacked in real life, that engagement could last five seconds or five minutes. While most street fights tend to end pretty quickly, if confronted with multiple assailants you could be facing an ongoing skirmish until you can break free and make your escape. So should a KM practitioner be training for every situation? Ideally yes. Most of us though do not have two hours a day, seven days a week to work on our fitness in addition to our skill based training. Those sorts of numbers are only achieved by professional fighters or the obsessed. We can, however, train to develop the appropriate energy systems and improve our overall muscular strength, power and endurance.

To better illustrate what I am trying to achieve with this training plan imagine a real life situation where you are confronted by three would-be assailants. After being threatened for money and sensibly tossing your wallet to their feet, they decide to attack. You assess and react to the initial attack (5 seconds) and then run for it. After a short five second sprint (10 seconds), one of the assailants catches you by the shirt and pulls you to a stop. Again you defend and strike that individual while attempting to maintain good positioning and awareness of the other assailants (20 seconds). You break away a second time and start running, but get surrounded as you reach a wall (30 seconds). This time you have to engage with all of the assailants, pacify two of them and repel the last  (50 seconds) before starting to run again. You finally stop running when you can no longer see or hear the last assailant (120 seconds). From start to finish the encounter lasted two minutes.

Now, aside from making the mistake of disengaging too early, which enabled the attackers to catch you again, what can you observe or speculate about the movements in this example?:

–          many full body movements occurred

–           there were bursts of more intense movement

–          heart rate and breathing rate were high

–          there were very few times when rest could be achieved

Now I know that not every encounter will be the same or even similar to this. If, however, we consider this to be a worst case scenario as far as the length of time involved, then we can use it to guide our training. Based on the above analysis, the training for such a situation would need to include the following:

–          full body movements

–          explosive movements [1-10 seconds]

–          short intense bursts [10-30 seconds]

–          longer, semi-intense efforts [30-90 seconds]

–         few or no static rest periods within the work phase

KM requires training that shares common elements but is different to other martial arts, as it is not a sport in which rules and regulations help to define necessary training areas e.g. five minute rounds in the UFC. The real-life practice of KM is highly variable but will certainly involve short bursts of intense full body movement, interspersed with somewhat less intense activity, along with potentially fast paced running. In the next article I will suggest ideas for structuring an initial solo workout program and provide an example program, that could be used to begin training.

Written by: Josh Hensman