Posts Tagged ‘Vancouver shooting’

chicken or egg

Often, Bruce Lee (1940-1973) is credited with being the founder of Mixed Martial Arts.
As far as the West and the traditional East is concerned, this is true. Lee became famous in the early 70s because of his movie career. This allowed the world to see Lee’s new style of Jeet Kune Do or the “Way of the Intercepting Fist”. Lee is considered the founder of MMA because he was perceived to be the first person to take pieces of various styles and create his own catered to his style of fighting.

Historians often say that history is written by the victors and, as far as the world is concerned, Lee is the founder of MMA. However, as a Krav Maga practitioner I know this is not entirely true. Often in human history, for whatever reason, something is developed simultaneously at two different locations under different circumstances, yet the end result is the same. As a Krav Maga practitioner I know that Imi Lichtenfeld (1910-1998) actually came before Lee and developed Krav Maga as a system which took pieces of various martial arts to create a simplified self defense system.

While Lee started learning Kung Fu under the legendary Yip Man, a Wing Chung Master, Lichtenfeld started as a boxer and a wrestler, and yet they both came up with systems that were looking to simplify martial arts/self defense and strip down all of the useless techniques. There is, of course, one major difference. Lee developed his style for himself out of passion and sport, and Lichtenfeld developed it out of war and necessity. One (Lee’s) is a beautiful style designed with directness, no form and speed in mind, though I suspect was really developed for a person who has trained many years and who had developed a great amount of speed. The other (Lichtenfeld’s) was designed to work for anyone of any size under any circumstance. It is quite possible that Lee would have continued to simplify his system had his life not been cut short, but we will never know. Krav Maga under Lichtenfeld, however, was allowed to develop under his watchful eye into a simplified version of the original. I can only imagine what might have happened had the two met each other to discuss techniques.

For both, their original dream was the same and their ends, although decades apart, have one glaring similarity. Upon their deaths, there was a mad scramble to assume power as the next in line. While I am unfamiliar about the squabbles in the Jeet Kune Do world, I often hear people discuss how close in lineage their instructor was to Lee. I have heard things like, “Oh, my instructor is three people removed from Lee.” Or, “That style is not Jeet Kune Do but mine is true to the original.” This should sound familiar to all the Krav Maga people out there as now in 2014, 16 years after Licthenfeld’s death, there are at least 10 major Krav Maga organizations, not to mention the numerous independent schools that choose to stay out of the politics.

Personally, I have trained with individuals who can trace their lineage back to both Lee and Lictenfeld, and I have trained with individuals who have learned both Jeet Kune Do and Krav Maga who cannot trace their lineage directly back to the creators. The question is, should the ability to directly trace training lineage to the original creators matter. Personally, I do not think it should. My reasoning is simple. First, NOBODY ever questions the lineage of either Lee or Lichtenfeld because they were innovators. They created systems not seen by anyone else before. Their lineage did not matter, for they themselves were the reason they were famous, not because of under whom they trained. Second, how long after an originator’s death does one need to wait until a system is diluted or completely changed from what it was meant to be.

Take Tae Kwon Do or Judo for example. I am sure the original creators would be rolling over in their graves if they saw how diluted and sports-like their systems had become. For the most part these systems follow the lineage of the original founder, and yet they are nothing at all what they are suppose to be, but rather watered down systems designed for points and not the original simplified self defense systems that they were. It is quite possible that this has, or can happen, to both JKD and KM, but does this mean change of the systems is bad? Again, I do not think so. I think that change, so long as it follows the principles of remaining simple, easy-to-use and effective for real world application, is good. If, however, change of a system turns it into something for points or display, then the creators most likely would be kicking themselves in the head for not being more clear about how they wanted their systems to develop.

I have heard that the reason that Hiam Gideon was named the head of the IKMA after Licthenfeld’s death was because he was also an innovator. He adapted Lichtenfeld’s moves to further simplify them so that they were more likely to succeed. This is not something I can confirm as there are many rumours regarding the question of lineage after Licthenfeld’s death. However, if it is true then for sure it makes sense, for it is my understanding that Krav Maga, or Jeet Kune Do for that matter, were meant to be evolving styles to utilize any and all techniques that existed in the world, regardless of origin. Of course, IKMA now refers to its system as the Gideon system while IKMF, now under Avi Moyel, and KMG under Eyal Yanilov, still call their systems the IMI system. What does this mean? I am not really sure, but it certainly brings into the question of the evolution of the system. There are, of course, Krav Maga organizations headed by individuals who learned their Krav Maga from the Army, or a friend, or whatever, and though they do not follow the original lineage, certainly follow the Krav Maga mentality of keeping it simple, efficient and easy-to-use.

There are certain moves, such as the Krav Maga 360 defense, to which you will see in almost all the Krav Maga organizations. In fact, moves such as this have been spread into other self defense systems whether they realize it or not, such as modern Cimande. Other moves, however, such as how to deal with the front choke, vary from organization to organization. Is this good or is this bad? Well, the answer should be obvious by now. It depends. Krav Maga is meant to be an evolving system, but what direction that evolution takes is still up in the air. Some systems focus more on aggression, some more on technique. Some are very casual and some are very traditional. Some use belt systems and some use patch systems.

No matter what your lineage however, one thing needs to remain the same. The moves need to work and they need to work fast. I have noticed that some organizations use only one variation of a move and I have found that the variation works great for some, but not all. An organization that chooses to keep a move simply because that’s the way the Master did it seems to be missing the point of the original creation of the system, whether KM or JKD. Some moves work great for big people but not small people. Some moves work great for fast people but not slow people. This is part of the reason that aggression is so important in Krav Maga. However, this does not mean you should forget your technique. Our philosophy at Urban Tactics Krav Maga is that at the White Belt and Yellow Belt levels, we teach our students the fundamentals and a few of the various options. We then encourage them to use the move that works best for their body type and fitness level, and choose it as their main reaction under said circumstances. This does not mean, however, that they should forget the other options as you never know what may happen.

Personally I have found myself saying that Krav Maga is a system that assumes you are going to screw up and that even if that happens, you will survive. Another thing I have come to realize, after observing some of my friends whose Krav Maga training comes exclusively from the Army, is that when you remove the option to kill your attacker, your technique becomes far more important than your aggression, as a level of control is required in the civilian or police world.

I think by now you should have figured out what my thoughts are on lineage. It depends on who your instructor is and how good they are at teaching you the fundamentals, regardless of lineage. At the end of the day, at least with Krav Maga if you go home and sleep safely every night then your instructor has done their job. Criticizing an organization just because of lineage is ridiculous, especially if what they teach follows the original principles and, most importantly, works. At Urban Tactics Krav Maga we train with individuals from all organizations in the Krav Maga world, and we encourage our students not only to do the same but also to train in other styles. You can never know too much as we are always learning. Evolution is a part of humanity, and fighting over who came first or who has the closest tie to the original founder of a system seems rather petty to me. At the end of the day, any instructor should not put their loyalty into their organization but should put their loyalty into their students. Getting caught up in the politics of lineage in the Martial Arts I am sure would drive any founder nuts. To me it really doesn’t matter that Lee is seen as the founder of MMA over Lichtenfeld because they both have wonderful legacies and gave the world two great systems and ways of thinking.

So, The Chicken or the Egg? Which Came first? Really, it does not matter, because in the end we are all here, we are all alive and we are all safe.

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Why do we fall? So we can learn to pick ourselves up again. This is one of the better quotes from the Dark Knight Batman movies starring Christian Bale. This not only applies to life, but it also applies extremely well to the military and, of course, Krav Maga. In Krav Maga, if you fall you want to get up as quickly as possibly because we do not like the ground. However, sometimes in life we fall and the best thing to do is laugh about it and find a solution to improve the situation.

Recently we went out to teach one of our tactical shotgun courses. Unfortunately, due to the gun culture in Canada and the attitude of local ranges we have yet to create a partnership with any of them. However, so long as you are using non-restricted firearms, according to Canadian law, you can go out and shoot anywhere in the wilderness that is designated Crown Land (Federal Government). As such, we have our favourite spot to teach. This spot however, is a long drive into the middle of nowhere and really requires a suitable off-road vehicle. Luckily for us, Borhan has a Honda C-RV, albeit an old one but still reasonably capable off-road.

Normally when we do the course at least one other person has an off-road vehicle, however this time what we got was a Mini cooper and an older Toyota Corolla. We only had room for one extra person in the C-RV due to all the equipment, and the rest packed into the Corolla to make the slow trip (for them) up the dirt road filled with potholes and rocks.

I, Borhan, and a student led the way barreling across the road to get to our favourite spot before anyone else took it. Borhan enjoys off-roading as he was trained by the Canadian military to do so. Off-roading is where he can be free to drive without worry of hitting another vehicle or be hit by one…again. Due to the fact that the tires were worn, and the C-RV is old, Borhan decided to play it safe and stick to the side of the road with less potholes. However, what is off-roading without a little speed.

There we were, driving and minding our own business, when suddenly a vicious rock decided to jump in front of the car. “Good thing the army taught me how to drive off-road” he said, but before the period could be placed in the sentence the attack rock made its move. WIth a loud thunk and some poor timing, the next thing we know we are smack in the middle of a ditch in 2 feet of mud. Oh the irony, it’s a good thing the army taught him how to drive! The comic timing was far too perfect, something like the Kodak moments of the 90s that we only wish we could have had on film, lest no one believe us that he actually said it 2 seconds before we were attacked and pushed into the ditch by the devious rock!

At this point we were tilted at an angle in the ditch. Carefully I opened the door, getting out only to sink in the 2 foot deep mud puddle. Making it back to the safety of the road I managed to take this picture of Borhan getting out of the vehicle before Borhan got his revenge on the rock and threw it into the woods.

A man A car A ditch

We had to wait about 10 minutes for the overloaded off-roading Corolla to show up with help to see if we could come up with solutions. Those in the Corolla looked at the vehicle ominously. However, I had seen enough IDF Hummers stuck in sand and ditches to know when a stranded vehicle could be pulled out to safety. My original thought was to use all 6 of us to pull the car out but alas, we had no ropes. Although I suspect even if we did have ropes nobody would have wanted to. I know we could have, as I remember a time in the army when a car had parked in front of our bus. About 7 of us got out and physically lifted the car out of the way. But, being the only one with this experience the others were doubtful.

Then it was suggested we find someone with a truck to pull us out. This area is full of rednecks and trucks so we knew it wouldn’t be too hard. The off-roading Toyota which was faring far better than the Honda in the ditch left on its mission. In the meantime about 3 SUVs passed us without a care in the world. How times have changed.

We began to unload the car to make it easier to deal with when help finally came. As well, we began to find lumber and branches to create a ramp under the right front tire to give it some traction in the mud. Though we did not have rope we took a small bungee cord and lashed together the logs into our small makeshift bridge.

Eventually the Corolla came back with a friend. An old green and grey Ford F250 showed up. The door opened and out stepped an older, bearded, toothless man that looked like he was fresh out of the show Duck Dynasty. The man (of which I never did get his name) handed us two small crane rigging lengths with some shackles. We hooked it up to the frame in the front and got ready. Borhan started the engine only to have it stall; I guess the car didn’t like being in the ditch after all. He popped it into neutral and told the old man to give it some gas. It must have been my light-hearted spirit that gave the car some lift because it literally took 5 seconds to pull the car out. Disaster averted. Checking the car for damage, of which there was none, we loaded up the vehicle, thanked the old man, and headed out to start our now somewhat delayed course.

The Rigging

photo 1

photo 3

In the end this potential disaster turned out to be quite the fun adventure, and not only that it allowed us to bond. Group problem solving can often bring people together, at least when there is success. This really made me feel like I was back in the army. After this near-death rock attack that only slowed us a little, we set up for the course. The course itself ran quite well except for the fact that the delay allowed someone to take our favorite spot, but that’s ok, it could have been worse.

So, why do we fall? Or in this case, crash into a ditch. So that we can pick ourselves up again. Every bad situation has a silver lining. In this case we were fairly lucky, but I am confident that even if things had been worse we still would have had a wonderful bonding experience. Life does not always work the way we want it to, but as long as we keep smiling, find a solution and learn from it, everything works out for the better.

No we are not hunting rabbit.

No we are not hunting rabbit.

Written By: Jonathan Fader

Edited By: Warren Chow

Vancouver Shooting

Vancouver is an international city known for its beautiful scenery and international cuisine. But violent? I remember when I was in the IDF and the Vancouver Canucks Riot happened. I showed the iconic picture of the burning cars to my Israeli-born friends. They could not believe that it was Vancouver; they thought it was another a West Bank riot. This is not abnormal. Internationally Vancouver, or Canada, is seen as peaceful, with no crime and no violence. After all, it’s Canada right?

The reality for anyone who actually lives in Canada knows this is not true. Perhaps it’s no Iraq or Somalia, but for the people living here, at least to our standards, a single stabbing or shooting can be quite shocking.

Recently it seems that mass shootings or stabbings seem to be on the rise in North America. This could be true, or it could just be that the media has really been paying attention to them due to lack of other subjects to report.

To me, being a realist, I know these kinds of things happen all the time, in all cities, to all people, at all times. My question to you is, if you were at school, at work, or just walking down the street, would you;

a. know what to do?
b. if you know what to do, would you know how you would act?

Recently a shooting occurred in a nice area of downtown Vancouver which led to a police chase and a shootout outside a local attraction known as Science World.

For more information about the shooting please see this article:
http://www.theprovince.com/news/Downtown+Vancouver+shooting+suspect+battling+demons+brother+says/9929707/story.html

The shooter, who was clearly disturbed, has been charged with 6 counts of attempted murder.

While I could have picked many of the other shootings or stabbings to discuss, this one was selected as I was fortunate enough to be forwarded an email by one of my students regarding someone he knew who happened to be working at Science World during this time.

One of the great advantages of modern technology is that we can be in contact with everyone at all times (so long as we are in a service area). As such, here is a look at some of those emails that have been obtained with permission of all parties.

NOTE: Some content has been modified to protect the identity of individuals and their companies

Email 1:

“We’ve been under lockdown for about 1.5 hours as there was a shooting in Yaletown, then the 2 bad guys ran to Science World. Window of Whitespot shot out, as well as back window of police car on Science World deck.

One suspect shot, and policeman I hear was shot with minor wounds.

Told to stay away from windows.

Everything OK. No sense of danger on 3rd floor where I am. It’s amazing how news comes so fast on social media.”

The tone of this email seems fairly calm and collected. “no sense of danger”. This is a good example of “out of sight, out of mind”. The individual is relaxed enough to send out emails in a calm manner letting others know he is ok. If there actually was a sense of danger, would the tone be different? Would he be panicking? Would there even be an email?

Email 2:

– Still 3 police cars in front of Science World. The side of deck where shooting occurred is still behind yellow police tape;
– The White Spot glass door has been replaced, but the broken glass not cleaned up yet;
– The water table exhibit on the deck beside White Spot has a numbered chalk circle, which I assume is a bullet hole, as I know it was damaged during the shooting”

Email 3:

“On 3rd floor we never felt in danger, although it was kinda scary when S. rushed in at 11 AM to say there’s a shooter and to stay away from windows (I’m not sure if she said the shooter was on the roof).

Just talked to V., who was outside cleaning windows … . He said he 1st of all he heard maybe 5 scattered shots, then brrrr brrr (which would be the police firing back on automatic). I always thought police fired single shots, but I guess once they started exchanging fire with the bad buy they turned weapons onto automatic. V. took cover on the Green Roof, where RBC was holding a function. He was right outside my window about 5 minutes before S told us about shooter.

SW is still behind yellow tape as it is a crime scene, and lots of police there this morning when I arrived at work. We are only allowed to enter the building through the main entrance. Both sides of the sidewalk leading to main entrance (i.e. KSSP Park and parking side, where Whitespot is) are off limits. Guess we won’t have attendance today being a crime scene, even if they take down the yellow tape.”

This email was to another person the morning after. The one thing that I find interesting about this is about the assumption of automatic weapons fire. In Canada, automatic weapons are prohibited, meaning you are more or less not allowed to have them (except for military). The standard issue handguns of local law enforcement would not have automatic fire. I find it interesting, that of no fault of the emailer, that they do not know firearms laws or enough about firearms to know that it could not have been automatic fire from the police. It is quite common in Canada or even the US for the average person to be misinformed about firearms. Why is this an issue for me? Our philosophy when it comes to firearms is safety through education. You may see this come out as you read some of the questions I asked when I interviewed the person who sent the emails. I will also explain why I asked the questions and why they are important.

An interview with the emailer:

How fast after being told there was a shooting outside was a lockdown initiated? I think within 5 minutes, I didn’t hear the shooting becuz I’m on 3rd floor, but someone ran up around 11 AM and told us to stay away from windows since there was a shooter.

5 minutes is a long time for a lockdown to kick in, a lot can happen in five minutes. If your company or school takes this long do you think you are prepared?

Who initiated the lock down? Science world or the police? Initially Science World, then I hung around away from the windows until 3 PM when the police asked us to meet them downstairs.

If 5 min is a long time, then 4 hours is even longer for an official police lockdown. A common belief is that law enforcement will come rushing in to take control of the entire scene. This is a fallacy. It depends how many officers are on duty and what the situation is. In this case all officers who were there immediately were far too busy (being shot at) to deal with civilians. In major emergencies. for example. it’s quite reasonable to assume you may be on your own from 48 hours to even two weeks. So the same would apply for a shooter. If it is reasonable to prepare food and water for an earthquake is it not also reasonable to get training in the event you are face-to-face with a violent individual?

Have you ever received in house training regarding what to do in a lock down? No, just the regular evacuation drills.

This may seem shocking, but for someone like me who has spent several years in Occupational Health and Safety it is quite normal. In North America the idea of practicing lockdown procedures is quite foreign. It’s hard enough to get companies to do their yearly fire drill let alone a procedure that they may never need to use. Such procedures and practices are quite complicated to set up and regularly practice. As such, companies often only do them as minimally required.

Do you know what to do if the shooter came inside? No, but I would’ve locked myself in office. Afterwards I thought of the recent Moncton RCMP shootings, or many years ago when Viet Cong penetrated the US Embassy in Saigon.

While locking yourself in a room is certainly a good first step as most plans would start with this, as it puts a barrier between you and the shooter, it is not infallible. One thing I learned as a sniper is that you must always have an exit strategy. Putting yourself in the rabbit hole only works if you see the other side. Remember, bullets can go through walls and doors and “bullet resistant” is a relative term.

If the shooter made it close to you, do you think you would know what to do? Definitely not. I’m sure I would freeze mentally even if I had gun training.

This is the answer I expected. Most civilians would not know what to do, and even if they did in theory they do not have enough practice to react without panic. Even some law enforcement occasionally freeze up as they did not receive enough training (Usually due to budget restraints.)

How was the emotion levels in the room where you were for lockdown? 100% calm. We were actually in the IT room following the police officers on security cameras installed outside Science World. Everyone following on their smart phones on Twitter, Global TV sites etc. Being on 3rd floor, we felt safe, although thinking back I don’t think the elevators were shut down so if the shooter entered Science World he could’ve come upstairs.

This was a very fortunate situation. They were far enough upstairs that they felt detached from the danger, however, as it was pointed out there were ways to access the floor. Consider a Die Hard type situation. Buildings can quite easily be taken over by gunmen. Even though it’s something we think about it is something that could happen in a matter of minutes.

Did you have faith in the police ability to stop the shooters? Yes. Although even when social media reported the shooter had been captured, we still heard that there might be a 2nd shooter.

Could you say the same thing in your police force?

How did social media affect your thoughts considering you were in the middle of the situation? Actually kept us calmer, as internally there were no announcements over PA system updating us as the staff were too busy dealing with public and police.

This is actually another reason to like social media. The number one worst thing that can happen is mass panic. Once that happens even the smartest person in the room can make incorrect decisions (AKA the Vancouver Riots).

How accurate were the reports based on your first hand experience? Aside from mentioning a woman (either being shot or one of the shooters) and 2 shooters, reports very accurate.

This is fortunate for us in Canada, but other countries may have media that is manipulated to far greater amounts than here. (I advise you not to watch CNN)

How much do you know about firearms?
Nothing, and I have no wish to being a Canadian who is glad I am not living in gun crazy USA.

I would consider this a fairly standard Canadian reaction. I, who am a gun supporter and owner though, would rather see people educated on guns even if they have no interest in owning or using them.

If a shooter was disarmed, would you feel comfortable handling their weapon?
Yes, but only to gingerly move the gun to the side being careful not to point at anyone.

As a follow up to above, if you are not trained and managed to get the gun away from your attacker, what then? Are you going to shoot them? Do you even know how? Are you going to empty the magazine and chamber for safety like in the movies? Do you even know how?

Many Krav Maga schools teach gun disarms but negate to educate their students on the proper use of various firearms. To us, this is faulty thinking. From a tactical perspective one must have as much information about any possible situation to come up with the best possible solutions. Guns in the hands of those who do not know how to use them can be dangerous no matter what the intent is. Just see youtube for gun fails….

4th Email:

A quick synopsis from start to finish of the day. The following is what I’ve emailed friends today.

Since I never felt in danger being on the 3rd floor, it was more exciting than scary.
– We simply stayed away from the windows (had to evacuate my office as I have a window) as we were told there might be shooter on the roof. When we were told to move, I moved right away, as ever since 9-11 when there are emergencies I don’t hesitate to evacuate;
– We did not lock ourselves in a room, since we didn’t feel in danger;
– Actually saw the police hunting for shooter(s) as the MIS guy was monitoring the outdoor cameras and could see them with their rifles
– Didn’t know what was going on after the initial order to move away from windows at 11 AM. There were no internal announcements as Customer Service was too busy dealing with the public, so never was sure if I could move around until 3 PM when the police brought us all to lobby to talk.
– So in a real emergency situation, it would be mass confusion, having no idea who is where
– the kids who were at Science World (not as many as usual due to teacher’s strike) were moved to omni theatre and given free pop corn and drinks;
– Police ordered us to leave building at 3:30 PM, through the front door as of course Science World was a crime scene and they wanted to do another sweep of the building
– although I didn’t see it personally, I heard that when searching for the shooter(s), it’s just like the movies where the police search rooms with weapons drawn
– when I left I locked the office doors, but then thought it would make it more difficult for police to do their sweep
– A door at the White Spot at Science World was shattered by a bullet, and replaced quickly this morning
– The police tape stayed up until about 11 AM this morning

In our emailer’s case things turned out fairly well and their perhaps normally boring day at work was quite the eventful one. However, with a slightly different set of circumstances this could have been Vancouver’s Sandy Hook. Science World is a very large complicated building that has children, tourists, families, students and everyone of all ages in it at any given time. It really would not take an individual with any kind of weapon much effort to cause a lot of harm. Picture this..

An individual walks into there with an axe and starts hacking and slashing in a crowd of people.

How long until the group realizes something is wrong? How long until law enforcement is called? How long until they arrive?

It could be 30 seconds for security to arrive or 5-7 minutes for police to arrive.

Are you willing to put your life in question in that time?

I think it’s far more prudent for anyone to take their own personal safety in their own hands and learn even some basic skill that could potentially save their lives one day.

If you learn Krav Maga and all you learn is to be more aware then that is still something. If you learned to always be alert and vigilant and you spotted that axe wielding individual before they became a problem then we did our job.

However, if you are the first intended victim of the attacker you will need far more than keen eyes. In that moment you will know real fear and you will know, if you do in fact know, what to do to ensure that you go home safely. Even if that means just avoiding a fatal blow before help arrives.

Remember, no matter what you think, in that moment, your safety and life will only ever be in YOUR hands, not anyone elses.

Stay alert and stay educated.

Written by: Jonathan Fader

Edited by: Warren Chow

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Our IDF Tactical Rifle Level 01 course is based on rifle drills and tactics from Israeli Defense Forces and Canadian Army.  Course candidates will learn the fundamental drills of rifle shooting and handling. They will use these skills as foundation for small arms combat & defense. Rifle drills of Israel Defense forces are straight forward and simple just like Krav Maga. Under extreme stress, people tend to lose their fine motor control and rely on gross motor control to fight out of dangers. IDF tactical rifle courses teach you how to fight with your rifle not merely just how to shoot your rifles.
Course will cover:
1. Basic Rifle Marksman principles
2. Shooting position –  standing, prone, kneeling  & transition from each position.
3. Reload & Tactical Reload
4. stoppage drills
5. Zeroing ( Method of Adjustment )  – basically teach you how to adjust sight on a rifle. If you don’t know how to do that, your aim will always be OFF
6. Ballistic Affect on Metal Plate and different objects ( 5.56 x 45 mm and 7.62 x 39 mm)
7. engaging numerous targets in different distance.
8. Press check drill
Cost: $ 350.  Include Rifle ( CZ 858 )  &  300  rds 7.62 x 39 mm AMMO
Instructors:
IMG00109-20110502-1151
Jonathan Fader
Jonathan Fader was a formal sniper with the 84th infantry brigade of the Israel Defense Forces.
  1. Basic Infantry Training (IDF)
  2. Advanced Infantry Training (IDF )Negev Light Machine Gun Operator (IDF)
  3. M-24 Sniper Weapons System Operator (IDF)
  4. H.S Precision HTR 2000 .338 Sniper Weapons System Operator (IDF)
  5. Infantry Sniper School (School of Sniping and Counter Terrorism (IDF))